FW1 - Mental Imagery
Look at the map
300 days before opening
In this module, we shall apply the economic concepts you have just learned for describing the world economy.
It means that we shall give you the big pictures of the world economy detailed by regions. it's the real world and the real market.
Lesson: 1 hour
External readings: 2hours
Do it yourself: 0
Total: 3 hours
This world economy course describes the repartition of wealth between different countries and regions.
The objectives of the course are:
-To give you the big pictures about world and regional GNI, world and regional population and finally to compare the GNI per capita in different regions.
-To explain how these results are connected to the degree of freedom and knowledge in each country.
The world economy analysis is based on the GDP. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the sum of the entire final production obtained in a given year by a country. GDP measures the economic power of a given country. However, the figures in this survey are based on the GNI (Gross national Income), in purchasing power parity, in accordance with new World bank definition: Go to www.worldbank.org/data
1-THE BIG PICTURES
The world GNI attains 99,321 $Billion in 2013.
The world economy relies on three main regions:
North america: 18,554
European union 18,700
China and Japan:20,871
These three regions represent 58% of the world GNI . The world economic power is highly concentrated.
Real life example:
You cannot imagine how many top people are blindly ignorant about these figures. Some times ago, attending an executive board, I heard people dealing with economic development and what to do to increase it. I just asked " Do you know what is the figure of the world GDP?". It was a profound silence. Surprisingly, none was able to answer this question!
12-Main economic powers
The five main economic powers are the following in 2013:
USA: 16,992; China:16,064; India: 6,699; Japan: 4,791; Germany: 3,500
These countries represent 49% of the GNI .
The Global GNI pictures the economic power. GNI divided by total population gives GNI per capita. This indicator represents the well being of the population. However, it is an average that does not take into account inequalities of income within a country. Nevertheless, it enables us to make comparisons and to measure the capacity of a society and an economy to satisfy its citizens needs
According to the World Bank, the world economy is divided into the following income groups (In % of World population):
1-Low Income= ------------------- 12%
2-Lower Middle Income= --:-------- 36%
3-Upper Middle Income= ------------36%
4-High Income= --------------------16%.
High and Upper Middle income groups represent 52% of the world population. The percentage of poor people (Lower Middle Income en Low income) concentrates in South Asia and in Africa. For example, the situation in Sub Saharan Africa is catastrophic: The GNI per capita only reaches $3190 in 2013.
Real life example:
Most of the students coming from undeveloped countries do not know the place of their own country regarding this repartition.
Once, I gave these figures to a class formed by young executive coming from the third world. They were astonished : " We have followed many courses in economics both in our universities and in yours" They said " However, it's the first time we discover these figures!"
In order to check periodically all these big pictures, I recommend you to visit the following sites owned by the international institutions such as the World Bank, the International monetary Fund or the United Nations: www.worldbank.org www.imf.org www.un.org
I also recommend you to read "The Economist", a british newspaper which gives these information's quite on a weekly basis. www.economist.com
2-THE CAUSES: FREEDOM, KNOWLEDGE
Third world activists often underline different causes such as North South divide, raws materials, and so on. All these explanations do not stand under a close examination:
The North South divide is not valid unless we consider the South American countries as not belonging to the South!
Raw materials do not explain the different levels of development either. Japan, has no raw materials. Africa has a large supply of raw materials, but most African countries are poor.
In fact, Freedom and knowledge are the only factors that explain these differences between GNI per capita.
A constant correlation exists between level of freedom and level of development.
Whatever the region or the culture, every country with an Upper Middle Income is a free country .
These countries are found in:
-North America (USA, Canada) and Western Europe.
-South Asia and the Pacific : Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Australia and New Zealand.
-Latin America : Mexico, Chile, Argentina and Uruguay.
-Central Europe : Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia and Poland.
Among the free countries, the only big one that is far to be developed is India
With the exception of China, all countries ruled by dictatorships cannot even be included in graphs because their value is too insignificant.
The lowest GNI per capita are found in countries that have suffered or are still suffering from dictatorships.
-African countries in the sphere of influence of the former USSR recorded catastrophic results. For example, Ethiopia was ruined by Mengistus bloody Marxist dictatorship. Its economy should have taken off again, but endemic wars in the horn of Africa form an obstacle to its recovery.
-The same applies to South East Asia, where Cambodia, laos and Vietnam with GNI below $ 3500 are communist or former communist countries.
However, these countries are not at all short of raw materials. Their enterprising and creative spirit has simply been stifled for too long.
Regarding no communist dictatorships, there are no statistics available for Afghanistan, Myanmar, Iraq, North Korea, Libya, Somalia, etc. All these countries have low GNI per head
Obviously, economic development and well being are linked to freedom. Why would the degree of freedom explain the levels of development? It is because freedom is closely related to knowledge and therefore also to technical progress, which is the source of economic power. Of course Individuals deprived of freedom cannot create.
The following itinerary results:
Freedom -->Knowledge --> Development
This trilogy is the basic equation for development.
Go to www. freedomhouse.org . This site provides with an updated overview and regional surveys of freedom in the world.
In order to illustrate this golden rule, we shall show that knowledge is both connected to freedom and to the level of development.
We have 5 criteria by which to measure knowledge:
It is impossible to use this criterion. In fact, authoritarian regimes indoctrinate young people, and schools are often privileged locations for this indoctrination to take place. These countries thus have statistics indicating high education rates, but they have no relation to reality.
Children who spend 10 hours at school every day, listening to teachers belonging to unique political party, receive less education than children who spend only one hour at school per day, but who are taught in a positive way.
232-Number of scientists per 1 000 inhabitants
The second criterion must also be interpreted with caution because the stats about the number of scientists are issued by the States themselves. What is more, scientists who work in dilapidated laboratories are not as effective as those working in pleasant environments.
Bearing this reservation in mind, this criterion gives us the following results for the top 10 countries (In 2001):
These countries include three out of the five principal world powers: the United States, Japan and Germany. We can see that all these countries are free and enjoy high levels of development
Illiteracy rate generally distinguishes rates for men and women. We have established a single rate without such discrimination (2001):
All these countries are just emerging from dictatorships or remain ruled by dictators. All suffer of very low levels of development
234-Numbers of computers connected to internet for 10000 inhabitants (In 2001)
Once again, these figures show the excellent performance achieved by the Scandinavian countries.
235-Countries that export the most technology (In 2001)
Countries such as the Philippines, Malaysia and Thailand export the most advanced technology. This means that they accept to acquire knowledge through foreign investments in their economy. It also means that these countries are still in the race for progress. As a result, they benefit of high growth rates. All these countries are free or partly free.
3- GLOBAL SUMMARY
By examining various factors ( GNI per capita, freedom, knowledge) we can form a new classification of countries.
Countries heading in the right direction:
Korea, Thailand, the Philippines
Authoritarian countries with positive development prospects:
Analyze carefully all this data in order to clarify your business idea.
When imagining your products, services or markets:
In the short term, think about:
Over ten years, think about India
Anyway, Keep focusing on China because of its demographic weight and fast growth.
More precisely, don't invest in a country that is not engaged in a right direction regarding freedom and knowledge.
DO IT YOURSELF
Once again, use these knowledge's for stimulating your creativity. Begin to deliver short speeches about these topics to your relatives and friends. It should be a good training for increasing your personal visibility.
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